A Case of Sarcoidosis Disseminated to Skeletal Tissues
Keywords:Sarcoidosis, Musculoskeletal System, Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that typically affects young adults. Diagnostic criteria for sarcoidosis include involvement of two or more of the following organ systems: 1) pulmonary infiltrates; 2) bilateral hilar adenopathy; and 3) skin and/or eye lesions. Musculoskeletal system is less commonly involved. For that reason potential presenting symptoms can vary and make the diagnosis very challenging; particularly if a patient has symptoms that mimic other conditions. Musculoskeletal involvement for example can mimic malignancy. The following case describes a patient with known history of primary metastatic mediastinal Germ Cell Tumor (GCT) with teratomatous elements who is diagnosed with sarcoidosis involving skeletal tissues.
2. Pietinalho A, Hiraga Y, Hosoda Y, Lofroos AB, Yamaguchi M, Selroos O. The frequency of sarcoidosis in Finland and Hokkaido, Japan: a comparative epidemiological study. Sarcoidosis 1995; 12:61-7.
3. Milman N, Selroos O. Pulmonary sarcoidosis in the Nordic countries 19501982: epidemiology and clinical picture.
4. Sartoris DJ, Resnick D, Resnik C, Yaghmai I. Musculoskeletal manifestations of sarcoidosis. Sem Roentgenology 1985; 4:376–88.
5. Uehlinger E, Wurm K. Sarcoidosis of the skeleton: review of the literature and case report. ROFO Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Nuklearmed 1976;125:11122.
6. Shorr AF, Murphy FT, Gilliland WR, Hnatiuk OW. Osseous disease in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and musculoskeletal Symptoms. Resp Medicine 2000; 94:228-32.
7. Abril A, Cohen MD. Rheumatologic manifestations of sarcoidosis.Curr Opin Rheumatol 2004; 16(1):51.
8. Poyanli A, Poyanli O, Sencer S, et al. Vertebral sarcoidosis: imaging findings. Euro Radiol 2000; 10:92-4.
9. Beasley EW III, Peterman SB, Hertzler GL. An unusual form of tibial sarcoidosis. Am J Roentgenol 1987; 149:754–6.
10. Aberg C, Ponzo F, Raphael B, Amorosi E, Moran V, Kramer E. FDG Positron Emission Tomography of Bone Involvement in Sarcoidosis. Am J Roentgenol 2004; 182:975-7.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from the Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to email@example.com