Fighting COVID-19: What’s in a Name?
Keywords:COVID-19, Asian Americans, Racism, Xenophobia, Wuhan Virus, Chinese Virus
While the COVID-19 virus has infected over 3 million people in the United States of America, Asian Americans face unique unfair treatment due to COVID-19. In America, many anti-Asian incidents have been reported, and the FBI warns of increased hate crimes to Asian Americans due to COVID-19. Americans and high-level politicians use inappropriate names, such as “Chinese Virus,” for the COVID-19 virus, which fuels racism and xenophobia. In this Experience piece, we discuss the harm of referring to the COVID-19 virus based on the geographic location where it was first identified.
Allen-Ebrahimian B. Timeline: The early days of China's coronavirus outbreak and cover-up. Axios. Available from: https://www.axios.com/timeline-the-early-days-of-chinas-coronavirus-outbreak-and-cover-up-ee65211a-afb6-4641-97b8-353718a5faab.html. Last updated: Mar 18, 2020; cited 2020 Jul 26.
Dawood FS, Iuliano AD, Reed C, Meltzer MI, Shay DK, Cheng PY, et al. Estimated global mortality associated with the first 12 months of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus circulation: a modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Sep;12(9):687-95
Muwahed J. Democrats demand apology after McCarthy tweets about 'Chinese coronavirus'. ABC News. Available from: https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/democrats-demand-apology-mccarthy-tweets-chinese-coronavirus/story?id=69513372. Last updated: Mar 10, 2020; cited Jul 26, 2020.
Robyn R, Jocelyne L, Tiansheng Z, Magie F, Bei X, Melissa R, et al. 2019-nCoV (Wuhan virus), a novel Coronavirus: human-to-human transmission, travel-related cases, and vaccine readiness. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2020 Jan 31;14(1):3-17.
Phelan AL, Katz R, Gostin LO. The Novel Coronavirus Originating in Wuhan, China: Challenges for Global Health Governance. JAMA. 2020 Jan 30; 323(8): 709-10.
Kofi Ayittey F, Dzuvor C, Kormla Ayittey M, Bennita Chiwero N, Habib A. Updates on Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus epidemic. J Med Virol. 2020; 92(4): 403-7.
Wang LF, Anderson DE, Mackenzie JS, Merson MH. From Hendra to Wuhan: what has been learned in responding to emerging zoonotic viruses. Lancet. 2020 Feb 22;395(10224):e33-e34.
Shaikh K, Shrestha C, Dutta D. Treatment options in people with COVID19: Selecting the best armamentarium against the novel virus. J Pak Med Assoc. 2020 May;70(Suppl 3)(5):S69-S73.
Chen WH, Strych U, Hotez PJ, Bottazzi ME. The SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Pipeline: an Overview. Curr Trop Med Rep. 2020 Mar 3;1-4
Kai Kupferschmidt JC. China’s aggressive measures have slowed the coronavirus. They may not work in other countries. Science. Available from: https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/03/china-s-aggressive-measures-have-slowed-coronavirus-they-may-not-work-other-countries. Last updated: Mar 2, 2020; cited Jul 26, 2020.
Chris Jackson JB, Jinhee Yi. New Center for Public Integrity/Ipsos Poll finds most Americans say the Coronavirus Pandemic is a Natural Disaster. Ipsos. Available from: https://www.ipsos.com/en-us/news-polls/center-for-public-integrity-poll-2020. Last updated Apr 28, 2020; cited Jul 26, 2020.
Shoichet CE. What historians hear when Trump calls coronavirus 'Chinese' and 'foreign'. CNN. Available from: https://www.cnn.com/2020/03/12/us/disease-outbreaks-xenophobia-history/index.html. Last updated: Mar 17, 2020; cited Jul 26, 2020.
Calisher C, Carroll D, Colwell R, Corley RB, Daszak P, Drosten C, et al. Statement in support of the scientists, public health professionals, and medical professionals of China combatting COVID-19. Lancet. 2020 Mar 7;395(10226):e42-e43.
Farivar M. US Watchdog Tracks Over 2,100 Anti-Asian Incidents. Voice of America. Available from: https://www.voanews.com/usa/race-america/us-watchdog-tracks-over-2100-anti-asian-incidents. Last updated: Jun 27, 2020; cited Jul 26, 2020.
Margolin J. FBI warns of potential surge in hate crimes against Asian Americans amid coronavirus. ABC News. Available from: https://abcnews.go.com/US/fbi-warns-potential-surge-hate-crimes-asian-americans/story?id=69831920. Last updated: Mar 27, 2020; cited Jul 26, 2020.
World Health Organization (WHO). Factors that contributed to undetected spread of the Ebola virus and impeded rapid containment. WHO. Available from: https://www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/one-year-report/factors/en/. Last updated: Jan 2015; cited Jul 26; 2020.
Baseler L, Chertow DS, Johnson KM, Feldmann H, Morens DM. The Pathogenesis of Ebola Virus Disease. Annu Rev Pathol. 2017 Jan 24;12:387-418.
Rao TSS, Andrade C. The MMR vaccine and autism: Sensation, refutation, retraction, and fraud. Indian J Psychiatry. 2011 Apr;53(2):95-6.
Fukuda K, Wang R, Vallat B. Naming diseases: First do no harm. Science. 2015 May 8;348(6235):643.
Finnegan C. Despite world's highest COVID-19 death toll, US is 'the world leader in the pandemic' response: Pompeo. ABC News. Available from: https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/worlds-highest-covid-19-death-toll-us-world/story?id=71670169. Last updated: Jul 8, 2020; cited Jul 26, 2020.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from the Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to email@example.com
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org